China’s new Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Action Plan

by John Brian Shannon

Reports of China’s notoriously bad, air, land, and water pollution, have reached the upper echelons of power in the People’s Republic of China, where those concerns appear to have been taken with the utmost seriousness by the country’s leadership and are now translated into a far-reaching policy document.

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Over a billion Chinese citizens face sustained exposure to rapidly-increasing air pollution levels, as the government sets new air quality regulations. Image courtesy: dailytech.com

The Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Action Plan outlines the plan of action to be undertaken throughout China’s command and control economy to improve the air quality in heavily-industrialized and heavily-populated regions of the country.

The central theme of the policy document is one of environmental social responsibility at the end-user level, with enforcement that includes criminal charges against those individuals, businesses, or organizations which do not meet the newly-drafted regulatory standards by 2017.

All effort is now being directed towards meeting the targets by the specified date. Three years and three months, is not a lot of time to accomplish the goals as set out in the document — especially when one considers the sheer magnitude of the air pollution problem there.

Some excerpts of the original Chinese language policy document are provided below. Google Translate provides a very literal translation — therefore, some much-needed polishing was done by this authour. Please bear this in mind.

Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Action Plan

State Council on the issuance of air pollution control action plan notification – Guo Fa [2013] No.37

To: Provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities:

[‘Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Action Plan’ opening statement]

Atmospheric environmental protection is related to people’s fundamental interests, is related to sustained and healthy economic development, is related to building a moderately prosperous society, and is related to the great rejuvenation of the Chinese national dream. The present air pollution situation in China is grim with regards to respirable particulate matter (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and is characterized by regional atmospheric pollutant environmental issues becoming increasingly prominent, which harm people’s health and affect social harmony and stability. As China’s industrialization, urbanization, and energy resource consumption continues to increase, air pollution control pressures must keep pace. This action plan was developed to effectively improve air quality.”

Beijing, Tianjin, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta are the regions singled-out for massive improvements to their present air quality, although other regions are mentioned and are also directed to participate to the best of their ability.

The impression one gets is that regulatory supervision and any criminal charges, are most likely to be seen in those heavily-industrialized and heavily-populated regions — as opposed to less-industrialized regions of the country.

Two more exerpts for you:

Goal: After five years of effort, the country will see an overall improvement in air quality. ‘Heavy weather-borne pollution’ will see a substantial decrease; Beijing, Tianjin, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta, regional air quality will show significant improvement. We will strive for five years or longer, for the gradual elimination of heavy weather-borne pollution, and significant national air quality improvements.

Specific targets: By 2017, the national level and above cities respirable particulate matter concentration ratio will decrease by 10% or more, when compared to 2012 levels; clear days will gradually increase; Beijing, Tianjin, the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and other areas with fine particulate matter concentrations, decreasing by 25%, 20%, 15%, of which the average annual concentration of fine particulate matter in Beijing is now controlled to 60 micrograms/cubic meters.

Considering where China is now, these are lofty ambitions. But from our perspective and theirs, let’s hope that they are ultimately successful in their efforts — and that each success on the environmental front spurs the Chinese leadership to even greater efforts.

If it sounds like I’m a cheerleader for Chinese efforts in this area, it is because I am.

China is producing well over 7.2 billion tons of CO2 per year (2010 numbers) and these numbers can only rise, as one new coal-fired power plant is added to the national grid each week (on average) since January 2008, and is set to continue until 2020.

Yes, you read that right. From January 2008, through till 2020, China will have completed construction of (and added to the grid) one coal-fired power plant per week.

(Regarding the plants built since 2011, they have a very successful nitrous oxide reduction system installed, and coal dust and fly ash are now better controlled by means of water spray).

And worse pollutants than CO2 come out of the hundreds of thousands of fossil fuel smokestacks in the country (many homes burn cheap, but toxic brown coal). CO2 is one thing, but nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, airborne refrigerant gases and other nasties are emitted by the millions or even billions of tons from existing smokestacks. Not to mention horrendous particulate levels (parts-per-million, or even parts-per-thousand levels, in very severely polluted areas) that people and livestock must breathe daily.

It goes without saying that the world’s air mass circulates around the planet once every 10-12 days. Soon enough, the air pollution produced in China finds its way to North America, Europe, and most of Asia. Most particulate matter stays within the country, although huge clouds of very fine particulate can travel thousands of miles per week.

The world’s biggest polluter, China is also the biggest spender (since 2011) on renewable energy. Some 382 billion dollars of renewable energy and energy efficiency projects were begun — in 2012 alone.

China has more wind turbines and more offshore wind turbines, than any country in the world (although U.S. wind power output was slightly higher than China’s last year, due to better turbine performance and better wind corridors) and China is second only to Germany for total installed solar panels. Huge spending on wind and solar by China, will ensure that they will be the dominant solar and wind power generators on the planet, easily surpassing the U.S. and Germany sometime in 2014.

Projecting ahead through 2015/16/17, China will continue to pull far ahead in total GigaWatts of renewable energy output. However, they will also continue to lead the world in both, coal-fired power generation and the rate of installation of new coal-fired power generation.

Will we see clearing skies for China’s air pollution problem?

Not any time soon. But massive, and bound to be historic change, is now underway and it will be interesting to see how a statist economy can institute a sense of social responsibility for the environment among its citizens — while at the same time using the command and control system to enforce pragmatic, but increasingly necessary change on business and industry.

Anyone who breathes the air on this planet, should wish them well.

Record Solar PV Shipment Levels in Q2 2013

By Joshua S Hill — Special to JBS News

The latest NPD Solarbuzz Module Tracker Quarterly has been released and shows that quarterly solar photovoltaic (PV) module shipments for the second quarter of 2013 exceeded 5.8 GW, a 21% growth over second quarter-2012 levels.

The figures released in the latest report represent the shipping levels for the leading 20 PV manufacturers around the world, and will finalised over the coming weeks.

It is expected that many Chinese tier-one manufacturers broke their quarterly module shipment records this most recent quarter, including companies Yingli Green Energy, Trina Solar, Jinko Solar, Renesola, and Hanwha SolarOne.

Furthermore, it is believed that Yingli Green Energy have reached 0.8 GW of shipments in the second quarter, a figure which would represent a new world record for any one single PV provider.

Ray Lian; “Yingli Green Energy has been strongly focused on market share gains over the past four quarters. The company is rapidly approaching 10% global market share, and has now become the clear leader in megawatt shipments. The leading solar PV suppliers are now starting to pull away from the pack, which provides strong evidence that the anticipated industry consolidation is finally in progress.” — Ray Lian, senior analyst at NPD Solarbuzz.

Another aspect of the Module Tracker Quarterly report which is likely to be of interest is the movements of those companies who did not seek market share through shipments. NPD Solarbuzz have noted that some companies are “prioritising profitability over market share”, refocusing their attention on “downstream project expansions” and gaining market share in specific “premium-price regions.”

The previous Module Tracker Quarterly, released in the wake of Q1 2013, reported figures describing 70% of global PV shipments being provided by the leading 20 solar PV module providers.

“The continued consolidation of solar PV manufacturers is creating opportunities for the leading tier 1 module suppliers,” explained Ray Lian. “The market share of the top 20 module suppliers increased significantly in Q1’13 to 70%, up from 58% in Q1 2012.”

What is Renewable Energy?

by John Brian Shannon

Renewable energy is a kind of energy, one that is automatically replenished by the environment, such as the rainfall which is collected behind hydroelectric dams and can be used to produce hydroelectric power.

It may surprise you to know that there are only two kinds of energy; Renewable and Non-Renewable. All the different types of energy are categorized under those two kinds of energy.

The Sun’s light and heat is employed (directly) to produce solar power and (indirectly) for wind power production, and heat in the Earth’s crust is used to generate geothermal energy. Another type of renewable energy used around the world is biomass.

Please view the graphic below, to see the world’s total available energy from all sources.

One row displays Renewable Energy, while the other row displays Non-Renewable Energy.

We can see that in 2009, the total world energy demand from all sources, including all forms of transportation worldwide, amounted to 16 Terawatt years of energy — including all forms of transportation which itself accounted for one-third of all energy demand on the planet.

By 2050, it is expected that worldwide energy demand (including transportation) will reach 28 Terawatt years of energy.

Planetary energy graphic energy-resources-renewables-fossil-fuel-uranium
Planetary energy graphic. © R.Perez, K.Zweibel, T.Hoff. Comparing finite and renewable planetary energy reserves (Terawatt ‐ years). Total recoverable reserves are shown for the finite resources. Yearly potential is shown for the renewables. Image courtesy: Perez and Perez 2009a

We can see from the graphic that the Renewable energy from solar power has the most potential and by itself, could have produced an amount of energy 1437.5 times the total world energy demand of 2009 (including transportation).

amonix-solar-module-record
Amonix solar modules mounted on Sun tracking system. Image courtesy: Amonix.com

Even with the increasing energy demands of our civilization by 2050, solar power by itself, could provide 821.4 times the world’s total energy demand, including all transportation.

solar-pv-header
Solar energy can easily provide all of our energy.

Of course, wind power could do the same between now and 2050, or even up to 2100 with its much higher level of demand. The Renewable energy available worldwide from wind power alone is equal to the energy required to power our entire civilization, including all forms of transportation.

Other types of Renewable energy such as Biomass, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, and Hydroelectric power, are important, but even when exploited to their maximum potential they are nowhere near being able to satisfy world energy demand — nor do they need to. They can complement solar power and wind power, adding to national electricity grids during times of the day with low wind activity and at night, when solar power is not adding power to the grid.

Another type of energy which can be considered renewable energy, (when the proper production processes are used) is the energy we get from from fuels such as gasoline, (when made from algae + water) or ethanol/methanol, (when it is made from a combination of organic waste material + enzymes + water).

Some biofuels are made from green plants, but require more inputs of water, fertilizer, and pesticides to grow them, than the final product is worth — which is why it is very important to select the right plants to create biofuel or it isn’t a sustainable energy solution. If the optimum plants are not selected for biofuel processing, government subsidies must then be employed to make the process affordable for farmers and biofuel producers.

Algae, switchgrass, jatropha, millettia and camelina, are sustainable choices for biofuel production, as is organic waste when processed with enzymes.

COREGreenGasRefinery_Vector2
If you add ordinary organic waste + tap water + enzymes (after processing, the result is) very pure gasoline + very pure CO2 for carbonated drinks + distilled water. Image courtesy: CORE biofuels

Due to the fierce competition in solar panel manufacturing since Chinese manufacturers entered the market, solar (PV) panels have dropped in price — so much so, that electricity produced at solar power plants can now be sold at comparable rates to the electricity produced at conventional power plants.

solar vs coal price 2011-2020
Utility-scale power plants, solar vs. coal 2011-2020. Image courtesy: cleantechnica.com

Wind turbines also have fallen in price dramatically and now compete against conventional energy around the world — with or without subsidies.

To compare Renewable and Non-renewable energy, it is important to examine two different variables; Subsidies and Externalities.

Subsidies:

  • Both Renewable energy and Non-renewable energy benefit from various subsidy schemes around the world.
  • The U.S. federal government subsidizes energy producers with vastly different subsidy rates for each energy type.
  • The various U.S. state governments subsidize energy producers with vastly different subsidy rates for each energy type AND subsidy rates vary considerably between the different states.
  • Sometimes a subsidy in country “A” (to promote extraction of petroleum for example) will have another subsidy added to it in country “B” which imports that petroleum (one subsidy on top of another subsidy) which helps bring down the price at the gas pump.
  • To make biofuel from corn (a poor choice of plant for biofuel production) farmers and producers were subsidized until January 1, 2013, by the U.S. government at $0.60 per litre.
  • Over time, subsidies can add up to many billions of dollars per year.
  • Please see the chart below, which shows the yearly subsidies enjoyed by the different energy producers in the U.S.
  • From the chart, we see that Oil and Gas receives $4.86 billion per year, from the U.S. government.
  • From the chart we see that the Nuclear power industry receives $3.5 billion per year, from the U.S. government.
fossil-fuel-subsidies
Annual energy subsidies in the United States. Image courtesy: DBL Investors What Would Jefferson Do?

How were these numbers arrived at?

In the case of Oil & Gas, DBL Investors took the grand total of subsidies paid to the Oil and Gas industry from 1918 – 2009 and divided it by 91 years, which equals $4.86 billion per year.

In the case of nuclear, DBL Investors took the grand total of subsidies paid to the nuclear power industry from 1947 – 1999 and divided it by 52 years, which equals $3.50 billion per year.

Similar calculation methods are applied to Biofuels 1980 – 2009 and Renewables 1994 – 2009.

Externalities:

  • Whatever the kind of energy, there are always externalities to deal with.
  • In the case of wind turbines, they can create noise, and for some people the noise is uncomfortable. And, they are either a source of wonder or an eyesore — depending on your viewpoint.
  • Hydroelectric dams dramatically lower fish stocks in rivers, although there have been some notable programmes designed to mitigate this in some river systems.
  • In China, the externalities from burning fossil fuels cause 410,000 deaths per year.

“China faces a number of serious environmental issues caused by overpopulation and rapid industrial growth. Water pollution and a resulting shortage of drinking water is one such issue, as is air pollution caused by an over-reliance on coal as fuel. It has been estimated that 410,000 Chinese die as a result of pollution each year.” – Common Language Project

  • This problem does not stop at the borders of any one country, for it is a worldwide externality.
  • The polluted air in China does not stay in the country, but circulates around the northern hemisphere, taking between 5 to 7 days to reach the western coastline of North America.
  • Similarly, the polluted air from North America takes 4 to 6 days to reach Europe.
  • And then there is the depleting ozone layer and oxygen levels in the Earth’s atmosphere caused by the burning of fossil fuels and man-made chemical compounds — along with dramatically increasing CO2 (and CO2 equivalent) gases, which increase the solar insolation value of the atmosphere (trapping heat) and thereby increasing the average worldwide temperature.
  • Scientists say that for each 1 C degree of global warming, it costs governments, businesses and citizens, 1 Trillion dollars per year to mitigate those effects.
Action_vs_Inaction_500
Climate action vs. Climate inaction.

According to 97 percent of the climate scientists testifying under sworn oath in the United States Congress in April of 2012, most of the global warming measured since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, is ‘anthropogenic’ — that is, caused by humans. Profoundly, it is in our best interest to make the switch to Renewable Energy.

Massive spending reductions for governments will be the result of switching to Renewable energy, as the costs to human health (national health care systems externality) and the costs of mitigating the damage caused by climate change (agriculture, property and emergency management externality), will drop dramatically.

Not to mention the billions of dollars of savings when conventional energy subsidies end.

wind-solar-04
Hybrid power plants employ both solar and wind, in this example. Image courtesy: SolarPraxis

UK opens World’s Largest Offshore Windfarm

by John Brian Shannon

The recently completed London Array began operations July 4, 2013 as the largest offshore windfarm in the world.

London Array consists of 175 Siemens wind turbines producing enough electricity to power half a million homes in Kent, UK. That’s 65 percent of the homes in the Kent region.

London Array. Image courtesy: Arabian Gazette
London Array near the Outer Thames Estuary, UK.  Image courtesy: London Array

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom David Cameron, Secretary of State Edward Davey and the UK Department of Energy & Climate Change Minister Greg Barker, welcomed London Array partners at the inaugural event in Margate, Kent, UK.

Dr Sultan Ahmed Al Jaber, CEO of Masdar; Dr Johannes Teyssen, CEO, E.ON, Brent Cheshire, Chairman and Managing Director, DONG Energy and Peter Loescher, President & CEO, Siemens, spoke about the successful completion of the wind farm project which began in July 2009 and became fully operational in July 2013.

“Its 175 turbines will be capable of generating enough energy to power nearly half a million homes and reduce harmful  CO2 emissions by over 900,000 tonnes every year.” — London Array website

London Array is 20 kilometres off the coast of Kent on a 245 square kilometre site. Phase One covers an area of 90 square kilometres and includes 175 Siemens 3.6 megawatt turbines with a combined capacity of 630 MegaWatts. A possible second phase could add enough capacity to bring the total to 870 MegaWatts.

From the GOV.UK Press Release: Following a helicopter tour of the facility, the PM formally opened the wind farm with a speech in which he welcomed the investment in the UK clean energy sector and called it a “win for local jobs, skills & growth.” The Prime Minister hailed Britain as a great place to invest and the London Array as testimony to that.

“Today is very simple. It’s a triple win.”

“First of all it’s a huge win for Kent. This project has been built by some of the bravest seaman, some of the most talented engineers, some of the hardest workers, and it’s going to continue to bring benefits to people in Kent for many, many years to come.”

“The second thing that it’s a big win for is renewable energy. Sometimes people wonder; Can you really have renewable energy projects at scale?”

“What the London Array shows – powering half a million homes, the biggest offshore wind farm anywhere in the world – it absolutely shows that you can do scale renewables and you can do them right here in Britain.”

“And that leads me to the third and I think the most important win of all, and it’s a very big win for Britain. Sometimes people wonder; Can we in the West do big projects any more? Can we do the big investments? Isn’t that all happening somewhere else in the east and south of our world?”

“If you look at the UK you can see we can do big projects. Not only did we do a superb Olympics, but London Crossrail is the biggest construction project anywhere in Europe.”

“Not far from here is London Gateway, which is the biggest port construction taking place anywhere in Europe, and here you have the biggest offshore construction anywhere in the world.”

“I think this demonstrates Britain is a great place to invest.” — Prime Minister of the UK, the Right Honourable, David Cameron

The consortium has submitted an application to the Department of Energy and Climate Change to seek approval to remove a planning condition and allow Phase Two of the project to go ahead. If approved, Phase Two would be capable of generating up to 240MW, giving a combined generating capacity of 870MW.

Energy companies DONG Energy (50%), E.ON (30%), and Masdar (20%) took part in the £1.5 billion Phase One joint venture. Over 75 organizations and 6,700 people were employed to bring the Array to fruition.

To find out more about the London Array offshore windfarm, sign up for the London Array newsletter to keep you up to date on the latest developments.

Or, feel free to download London Array’s 15-page PDF brochure.

JOHN BRIAN SHANNON

To follow John Brian Shannon on social media – place a check-mark beside your choice of Facebook, Twitter or LinkedIn: FullyFollowMe/johnbrianshannon

Kuwait plans 2000 MW of renewable energy

Kuwait Towers at Sunset. Image courtesy of www.itinerarist.com
Kuwait citizens use more energy per capita than 90 percent of the world’s nations. Kuwait Towers at Sunset. Image courtesy of: www.itinerarist.com

by John Brian Shannon

Kuwait will invest USD 100 billion on its domestic energy sector over the next 5 years, and some of that spending is earmarked for renewable energy.

Kuwait has embarked on its first renewable energy project and will now be able to export the oil that would have been used to  produce domestic electricity. Solar and wind will produce 70MW for the GCC nation by September, 2016. And by 2030, 15% of Kuwait’s total energy mix will be powered by renewable energy according to a new government policy.

Phase I of the country’s first renewable energy project is already underway and it will be in the form of a 70 MW hybrid power plant with PV-solar, thermal solar, and small wind power, set to come online by Q3 of 2016, in Shagaya, Kuwait – near its border with Iraq and Saudi Arabia.

By 2030 the 2000 MW renewable energy plant will be fully operational and the project will save Kuwait 12.5 million barrels of oil (BOe) per year — and power 100,000 Kuwaiti homes.

Saving 12.5 million barrels (BOe) per year will allow Kuwait to export that same amount of oil at the going rate. (12.5 million barrels of crude oil, is about equal to four of the largest and most modern, fully-loaded supertankers, the TI-class double-hulled supertanker)

Oil prices have been hovering around the USD 80.–100. mark recently, but this will certainly rise and some energy experts see oil rising as high as USD 250. per barrel, mid-century.

For demonstration purposes only, if those four supertanker loads of ‘saved oil’ is priced near today’s USD 90. per barrel ($90. x 12.5 million barrels per year) it means Kuwait will rake in an extra USD 1.12 billion, per year, every year, due to this renewable energy project.

If the oil price shoots up as expected, the government will see even greater benefits. By the time oil hits USD 180. per barrel, this 3-Phase project should be complete — allowing Kuwait to take in USD 2.25 billion, per year, every year, due to this renewable energy project.

Separate from all of the foregoing, is the additional income that could be garnered from those ‘saved’ 12.5 million barrels per year — IF Kuwait  added some value to that crude oil by refining it into valuable products before exporting it, instead of merely exporting it as raw crude oil. Gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel, plastics and synthetic rubber, are all examples of value-added products that can be made from crude oil.

At that point, the relatively small amount of 12.5 million barrels per year could become worth much more than crude oil sold for USD 1 or 2 billion per year. Instead, when sold as finished fuels or plastics, it becomes many billions of dollars contributing to the national GDP of Kuwait.

To extrapolate this further, Kuwait must take out of their yearly oil and gas production, a total of 126 million BOe (barrels-of-oil-equivalent) per year, to power their national electricity grid power grid which has a total capacity of 14,000 MW.

Based on USD 90. per barrel, with 126 million barrels (BOe) saved: If Kuwait switched completely to renewable energy, and instead, exported all the crude oil and gas it burns to produce domestic electricity, yearly GDP could increase by USD 11.3 billion.

Based on USD 180. per barrel, with 126 million barrels (BOe) saved: If Kuwait switched completely to renewable energy, and instead, exported all the crude oil and gas it burns to produce domestic electricity, yearly GDP could increase by USD 22.6 billion.

Based on value-added products made from crude oil, with 126 million barrels (BOe) saved: If Kuwait switched completely to renewable energy, and instead, refined all the oil and gas it burns to produce domestic electricity, yearly GDP could increase by USD 56.7 billion, or more.

Only now, with the recent combination of high crude oil prices and the dramatic fall in the cost of renewable energy has it made economic sense for OPEC nations to consider the switch to renewable energy.

Simply put, OPEC nations can make more money by exporting their oil – instead of burning it to produce electricity for domestic consumption.

Adding value to the ‘saved’ crude oil, means that OPEC nations have the opportunity to make money many times over, when compared to simply exporting raw crude product.

Embracing this new vision can work miracles for GCC economies, which are blessed with plentiful sunshine and wind resources, and already have the technology to refine their crude oil, thereby adding value to the resource, while creating thousands of jobs for the region’s chronically under-employed youth.

Cleaner air for GCC citizens, billions more dollars via value-added exports, and a lower unemployment rate among region’s youth. Now that’s something to celebrate!

.

Note:  Kuwait pumps 2.8 million barrels of crude oil daily, totaling 1.02 billion barrels of crude per year. — Salem al-Hajraf, head of energy research at the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research

Note:  Construction phases are as follows:

  • Phase I – 70 MW.
  • Phase II – 930 MW.
  • Phase III – 1000 MW.
JOHN BRIAN SHANNON

To follow John Brian Shannon on social media – place a check-mark beside your choice of Facebook, Twitter or LinkedIn: FullyFollowMe/johnbrianshannon