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NEW YORK, May 17, 2016 /PRNewswire/ — “Middle East and Africa Renewable Energy Policy Handbook 2016” from GlobalData offers comprehensive information on major policies governing renewable energy markets in the region. The report covers twelve key countries, providing the current and future renewable energy targets and plans along with the present policy framework, giving a fair idea of overall growth potential of the renewable energy industry in each of the countries.
The countries covered in the report are; Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Morocco, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Syria, and UAE. (Purchase the report here)
The report also provides major technology specific policies and incentives provided in the each country…
The Elephant in the Room
by John Brian Shannon
Fuel Subsidies ‘built this city’ — and every other city too — but are no longer required for a mature industry in a mature and developed economy.
For seven decades, petroleum provided North Americans with a comparatively cheap, plentiful, and reliable source of energy. And it happened to be a kind of energy that was particularly suited to our growing transportation needs.
Back in Henry Ford’s day, all of the government subsidies directed towards the exploitation of oil and gas were easily absorbed by a large and upwardly mobile population, and the few gigatons of transportation CO2 and other gases that were added to the atmosphere were easily absorbed by the Earth’s natural systems.
In Henry’s day, agriculture was by far the biggest polluter, followed by industry, construction, and electricity production, transportation was down the list.
Today of course, transportation is directly responsible for one-third of all airborne emissions, and added to that, are the emissions created in the manufacture of the parts necessary to build those millions of cars, trucks, trains, ships and airplanes. In 2013, it adds up to be a very large number indeed. The U.S. alone produces 7 billion tons of CO2 per year.
In an era of unaffordable U.S. budget deficits, direct subsidies to the petroleum industry are in excess of $4.86 billion dollars per year (on average) and when added to the various indirect government subsidies, have become dangerous to the overall economy.
For just one example of other subsidies supporting North America’s addiction to oil; Whose Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines have protected all that Middle East oil since 1932, and what is the grand total cost of that protection?
Meanwhile, the environmental subsidy in the U.S. is one that is far past the point of absorbing the total amount CO2 added by the U.S. alone.
Someone has to say it. The oil and gas industry, which once lifted the North American economy to unimaginable heights, has now become an unbearable burden to the economy and the environment, and the situation continues to worsen every year. Petroleum, is the 7 gigaton elephant in the room.
At least we only have one elephant in our room. By 2040, China will have four.
China is racing toward developed nation status. China produced 7.2 billion tons of CO2 in 2010, making it the world’s single biggest polluter. It estimated in 2008 that 410,000 people die from air pollution in China every year. It’s land area is similar in size to the U.S. although the U.S. has 311 million citizens (most households own at least one car) while China has 1.35 billion citizens, (where a majority of households will soon become car owners for the first time).
Huge tracts of forested land and grassland in both countries could conceivably capture and make use of, all the CO2 we produce, storing it for decades or even permanently — but only when forested areas and grasslands are not replaced with shopping malls and factories. Which is what has been happening at an accelerating pace since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.
India, with less than half of the land area of China, but with a rapidly growing demographic, will be in even worse shape than the U.S. or China. By 2022, India will have 2 billion citizens, but with only half the available land area to absorb all that CO2. In addition, vast areas of land in India are unsuitable for the plant life which removes CO2 from the atmosphere.
At present only 1 billion people in the world have one car or more per household, have home electronics and washing machines, and are connected to an electrical grid (developed nation status). Six billion don’t. But six billion people are expected in the developed nations club by 2050.
For now, the undeveloped and emerging nations are carbon-neutral or better — while one billion live in developed nations which are (huge) net contributors to global pollution levels.
Oil and gas has lifted one billion people into developed nation status, and for that we should be grateful. But, with six billion more people joining the club, we won’t have breathable air in some cities unless we change our transportation fuel — and soon.
All else being equal, if we lower our airborne emissions by one-third by switching from petroleum to electricity for our transportation needs, we will be in acceptable shape. What damage has been done, has already been done — no use in crying over spilt milk. And even if we do successfully switch to electric vehicles, the plant life on the planet will still be working overtime to capture and sequester all CO2 produced by the agriculture and manufacturing sectors as they will continue to add unimaginable amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere.
The important point is to stop adding more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than the Earth systems can handle. A simple but profound switch away from oil and gas to electricity in our transportation sector can accomplish this goal.
Electric vehicles are presently making huge strides and in September 2013, the all-electric Tesla S was the best selling car in Norway. And really, why not? The Tesla S is a great drivers car, it features almost zero maintenance and it runs on electricity which is provided by a network of (renewable energy powered and conveniently located) Supercharger stations placed all over the country which are free to use for the life of the car. Not to mention the always-available Tesla buyback scheme, where Tesla will repurchase your used Tesla for a previously agreed-upon price.
Free electricity for Tesla cars, no airborne emissions from Tesla cars, and a guaranteed Tesla buyback program. This is the future of transportation!
When we talk about a country’s carbon emissions we generally only consider those that occur within its borders. But where does the fuel for those emissions come from? And where do the products a country makes go?
In this second part of our series The Carbon Trade we look at who the big traders of carbon are. We’ll analyze the major importers and exporters of fuels and products and in doing so explain much of how carbon moves around the world, both before and after its combustion.
The Regions Fueling the World
In the first piece of this series, The Globalization of Carbon, we noted that in 2007 traded carbon totaled 17.6 Gt CO2, or 60% of total carbon emissions. More than half of this traded carbon was in the form of fuels, in particular oil and gas.
The big exporters of fuel carbon are those regions and countries that produce more fossil fuels than they use at home.
The big five fuel exporters are the Middle East, Russia, Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa and Australia. Together these five regions export 63% of carbon in traded fuels.
Indeed they are each so rich in fossil fuels in the form of oil, natural gas and coal that each of them export more carbon in fuels than they create through combusting fuels within their borders.
Each tonne of oil, natural gas or coal that is exported by these regions is imported somewhere else. So let’s see where they go.
Living On Foreign Fuel
It is widely known that the US is dependent on foreign oil, so much so they banned crude exports back in the seventies oil shocks. But the US isn’t the only region living off fossil fuels from other regions.
This fact is plain to see when we look at who the big importers of carbon in fuels are.
When taken together the countries that make up Europe (EU27) import more carbon in the form of fuels than the US. These two regions are the big fuel importers followed by Japan, China and South Korea, based on 2007 data.
Together these five regions import a staggering 71% of all carbon traded as fuels.
China is the World’s Factory
Now that we have seen how carbon is traded before it’s combusted, it is worth looking a how it is embodied in the trade of products after its combustion. For clarity’s sake products in this case means both goods and services though the former dominates.
In the last two decades exports of Chinese made products have exploded, driven on by cheap labour, capital controls and government subsidies. This phenomenon is plain to see in the data for carbon in exported products.’
In 2007 the carbon embodied in China’s exports of goods and services totalled 1,556 Mt CO2. About the same as the exports of the United States, Europe and Russia combined.
Although these five regions accounted for a healthy 58% of the trade of carbon embodied in products it is as a general rule less centralized than is the case for fuels.
Europe and the US Buy the World’s Stuff
If China is the big exporter of carbon embodied in products it will surprise few that the US and Europe are the big buyers.
In 2007 there was 1,514 Mt of carbon dioxide emissions embodied in European imports of goods and services, a quarter of which came from China. The US was the other major importer, followed by Japan, China and the Middle East.
The fact that so much European and American consumption is supported by emissions that occur in other parts of the world highlights the perils of focusing solely on terrestrial emissions for climate policy. The increased outsourcing of carbon intensive production to regions with weaker climate regulation risks undermining the effectiveness of national climate policies.
Such risks also exist regarding carbon in fuels. If factors reducing terrestrial emissions result in increased exports of fuels this can undermine the effectiveness of national action. The more than doubling of US coal exports since 2006 in reaction to the shale boom is a good example of this.
Join us for the final post in the series tomorrow when we Mind the Carbon Gap between country’s extraction, production and consumption totals.
All the data used in this series is based on the recent, and freely downloadable, paper ‘Climate policy and dependence on traded carbon‘ by Robbie Andrew, Steven Davis and Glen Peters. Many thanks to Robbie in particular for providing the data.